Addition and subtraction
Pupils should be taught to:
• read, write and interpret mathematical statements involving addition (+), subtraction (-) and equals (=) signs
• represent and use number bonds and related subtraction facts within 20
• add and subtract one-digit and two-digit numbers to 20, including zero
• solve one-step problems that involve addition and subtraction, using concrete objects and pictorial representations, and missing number problems
such as 4 = ? – 5.
Main changes and comments
Again, there does not seem to be much new here, but it must be remembered that these are end of year targets and much needs to be done during the year to reach them.
Children will be expected to make real progress with knowing, off by heart, all addition facts for each number totalling up to 20 (e.g. know that 9 + 5 = 14). They should also understand the effect of adding zero.
The key here is ‘knowing off by heart’, or as the new programme of study puts it in the corresponding notes:
‘memorise and reason with number bonds to 10 and 20…’
Not only should they know these number bonds, they should be able to reason using that knowledge.
Subtraction is much easier once it is realised that it is the inverse (or opposite) of addition. Many subtraction questions can be answered by adding on, but children are also expected to make progress with knowing subtraction facts (e.g. know that 9 – 4 = 5). In future years knowing these facts will be just as important as knowing ‘tables’.
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